The Capital Of A Stock Insurance Company Comes Primarily From Fire Insurance Under Indian Insurance Law

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Fire Insurance Under Indian Insurance Law

A freelance of Insurance comes into being when an individual searching for insurance coverage coverage enters into a freelance with the insurer to indemnify him in opposition to lack of assets by way of or incidental to fireplace and or lightening, explosion, and many others. This is basically a freelance and therefore as is ruled by way of the overall legislation of contract. However, it has positive particular options as insurance coverage transactions, corresponding to utmost religion, insurable pastime, indemnity, subrogation and contribution, and many others. those rules are commonplace in all insurance coverage contracts and are ruled by way of particular rules of legislation.


According to S. 2(6A), “fire insurance business” approach the industry of effecting, another way than by the way to a couple different magnificence of insurance coverage industry, contracts of insurance coverage in opposition to loss by way of or incidental to fireplace or different prevalence, usually incorporated a number of the dangers insured in opposition to in hearth insurance coverage industry.

According to Halsbury, this can be a contract of insurance coverage during which the insurer is of the same opinion for attention to indemnify the confident as much as a undeniable extent and area to positive phrases and prerequisites in opposition to loss or harm by way of hearth, which might occur to the valuables of the confident right through a selected duration.

Thus, hearth insurance coverage is a freelance wherein the individual, searching for insurance coverage coverage, enters into a freelance with the insurer to indemnify him in opposition to lack of assets by way of or incidental to fireplace or lightning, explosion and many others. This coverage is designed to insure one’s assets and different pieces from loss going on because of whole or partial harm by way of hearth.

In its strict sense, a fireplace insurance coverage contract is one:

1. Whose idea object is insurance coverage in opposition to loss or harm occasioned by way of hearth.

2. The extent of insurer’s legal responsibility being restricted by way of the sum confident and now not essentially by way of the level of loss or harm sustained by way of the insured: and

3. The insurer having little interest in the protection or destruction of the insured assets except for the legal responsibility undertaken underneath the contract.


There isn’t any statutory enactment governing hearth insurance coverage, as in terms of marine insurance coverage which is regulated by way of the Indian Marine Insurance Act, 1963. the Indian Insurance Act, 1938 basically handled law of insurance coverage industry as such and now not with any common or particular rules of the legislation touching on hearth of alternative insurance coverage contracts. So additionally the General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act, 1872. within the absence of any legislative enactment at the area , the courts in India have in coping with the subject of fireplace insurance coverage have relied thus far on judicial choices of Courts and critiques of English Jurists.

In figuring out the worth of assets broken or destroyed by way of hearth for the aim of indemnity underneath a coverage of fireplace insurance coverage, it was once the worth of the valuables to the insured, which was once to be measured. Prima facie that worth was once measured by way of reference of the marketplace worth of the valuables prior to and after the loss. However such manner of evaluation was once now not acceptable in circumstances the place the marketplace worth didn’t constitute the true worth of the valuables to the insured, as the place the valuables was once utilized by the insured as a house or, for wearing industry. In such circumstances, the measure of indemnity was once the price of reinstatement. In the case of Lucas v. New Zealand Insurance Co. Ltd.[1] the place the insured assets was once bought and held as an income-producing funding, and due to this fact the courtroom held that the right kind measure of indemnity for harm to the valuables by way of hearth was once the price of reinstatement.


An individual who’s so excited by a assets as to have take pleasure in its life and prejudice by way of its destruction is claimed to have insurable pastime in that assets. Such an individual can insure the valuables in opposition to hearth.

The pastime within the assets will have to exist each on the inception in addition to on the time of loss. If it does now not exist on the graduation of the contract it can’t be the subject-matter of the insurance coverage and if it does now not exist on the time of the loss, he suffers no loss and wishes no indemnity. Thus, the place he sells the insured assets and it’s broken by way of hearth thereafter, he suffers no loss.


The date of conclusion of a freelance of insurance coverage is issuance of the coverage isn’t like the acceptance or assumption of possibility. Section 64-VB simplest lays down extensively that the insurer can not think possibility previous to the date of receipt of top class. Rule 58 of the Insurance Rules, 1939 speaks about advance cost of premiums in view of sub phase (!) of Section 64 VB which allows the insurer to think the chance from the date onwards. If the proposer didn’t need a explicit date, it was once conceivable for the proposer to barter with insurer about that time period. Precisely, due to this fact the Apex Court has mentioned that ultimate acceptance is that of the confident or the insurer is dependent merely at the approach by which negotiations for insurance coverage have advanced. Though the next are dangers which appear to have coated Fire Insurance Policy however aren’t utterly coated underneath the Policy. Some of contentious spaces are as follows:

FIRE: Destruction or harm to the valuables insured by way of its personal fermentation, herbal heating or spontaneous combustion or its present process any heating or drying procedure can’t be handled as harm because of hearth. For e.g., paints or chemical compounds in a manufacturing unit present process warmth remedy and in consequence broken by way of hearth isn’t coated. Further, burning of assets insured by way of order of any Public Authority is excluded from the scope of canopy.

LIGHTNING : Lightning might lead to hearth harm or different kinds of harm, corresponding to a roof damaged by way of a falling chimney struck by way of lightning or cracks in a development because of a lightning strike. Both hearth and different kinds of damages brought about by way of lightning are coated by way of the coverage.

AIRCRAFT DAMAGE: The loss or harm to assets (by way of hearth or another way) immediately brought about by way of plane and different aerial units and/ or articles dropped there from is roofed. However, destruction or harm because of force waves brought about by way of plane touring at supersonic velocity is excluded from the scope of the coverage.

RIOTS, STRIKES, MALICIOUS AND TERRORISM DAMAGES: The act of any individual collaborating together with others in any disturbance of public peace (rather then conflict, invasion, mutiny, civil commotion and many others.) is construed to be a revolt, strike or a terrorist process. Unlawful motion would now not be coated underneath the coverage.

STORM, CYCLONE, TYPHOON, TEMPEST, HURRICANE, TORNADO, FLOOD and INUNDATION: Storm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Tornado and Hurricane are all more than a few kinds of violent herbal disturbances which can be accompanied by way of thunder or robust winds or heavy rainfall. Flood or Inundation happens when the water rises to an ordinary degree. Flood or inundation will have to now not simplest be understood within the commonplace sense of the phrases, i.e., flood in river or lakes, but in addition accumulation of water because of choked drains could be deemed to be flood.

IMPACT DAMAGE: Impact by way of any Rail/ Road car or animal by way of direct touch with the insured assets is roofed. However, such cars or animals will have to now not belong to or owned by way of the insured or any occupier of the premises or their workers whilst performing at some stage in their employment.

SUBSIDENCE AND LANDSLIDE INCULUDING ROCKSIDE: Destruction or harm brought about by way of Subsidence of a part of the web page on which the valuables stands or Landslide/ Rockslide is roofed. While Subsidence approach sinking of land or development to a decrease degree, Landslide approach sliding down of land in most cases on a hill.

However, customary cracking, agreement or bedding down of latest constructions; agreement or motion of made up floor; coastal or river erosion; faulty design or workmanship or use of faulty fabrics; and demolition, development, structural alterations or restore of any assets or ground-works or excavations, aren’t coated.

BURSTING AND/OR OVERFLOWING OF WATER TANKS, APPARATUS AND PIPES: Loss or harm to assets by way of water or another way as a result of bursting or unintentional overflowing of water tanks, equipment and pipes is roofed.

MISSILE TESTING OPERATIONS: Destruction or harm, because of affect or another way from trajectory/ projectiles in reference to missile trying out operations by way of the Insured or somebody else, is roofed.

LEAKAGE FROM AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS: Damage, brought about by way of water unintentionally discharged or leaked out from automated sprinkler installations within the insured’s premises, is roofed. However, such destruction or harm brought about by way of upkeep or alterations to the structures or premises; upkeep elimination or extension of the sprinkler set up; and defects in development identified to the insured, aren’t coated.

BUSH FIRE: This covers harm brought about by way of burning, whether or not unintentional or another way, of bush and jungles and the clearing of lands by way of hearth, however excludes destruction or harm, brought about by way of Forest Fire.


Claims now not maintainable/ coated underneath this coverage are as follows:

o Theft right through or after the prevalence of any insured dangers

o War or nuclear perils

o Electrical breakdowns

o Ordered burning by way of a public authority

o Subterranean hearth

o Loss or harm to bullion, valuable stones, curios (worth greater than Rs.10000), plans, drawings, cash, securities, cheque books, laptop information excluding if they’re categorically incorporated.

o Loss or harm to assets moved to another location (excluding equipment and gear for cleansing, upkeep or renovation for greater than 60 days).


A fireplace insurance coverage contract has the next traits specifically:

(a) Fire insurance coverage is a non-public contract

A fireplace insurance coverage contract does now not be sure the protection of the insured assets. Its goal is to look that the insured does now not endure loss by way of reason why of his pastime within the insured assets. Hence, if his reference to the insured assets ceases by way of being transferred to someone else, the contract of insurance coverage additionally involves an finish. It isn’t so hooked up with the subject material of the insurance coverage as to go robotically to the brand new proprietor to whom the topic is transferred. The contract of fireplace insurance coverage is thus a trifling a non-public contract between the insured and the insurer for the cost of cash. It can also be validly assigned to any other simplest with the consent of the insurer.

(b) It is whole and indivisible contract.

Where the insurance coverage is of a binding and its contents of inventory and equipment, the contract is expressly agreed to be divisible. Thus , the place the insured is responsible of breach of responsibility against the insurer in admire of 1 area issues coated by way of the coverage , the insurer can keep away from the contract as an entire and now not simplest in admire of that specific area mater , until the best is specific by way of the phrases of the coverage.

(c) Cause of fireplace is immaterial

In insuring in opposition to hearth, the insured needs to offer protection to him from any loss or detriment which he might endure upon the prevalence of a fireplace, then again it can be brought about. So lengthy because the loss is because of hearth inside the which means of the coverage, it’s immaterial what the reason for hearth is, usually. Thus , whether or not it was once since the hearth was once lighted improperly or was once lighted correctly however negligently attended to thereafter or whether or not the hearth was once brought about as a result of the negligence of the insured or his servants or strangers is immaterial and the insurer is vulnerable to indemnify the insured. In the absence of fraud, the proximate reason behind the loss simplest is to be seemed to.

The reason behind the hearth then again turns into subject matter to be investigated

(1). Where the hearth is occasioned now not by way of the negligence of, however by way of the willful

(2) Where the hearth is due is to reason falling with the exception within the contract.


Indemnity insurance coverage was once an settlement by way of the insurer to confer at the insured a contractual proper, which prima facie, got here into life right away when the loss was once suffered by way of the going down of an tournament insured in opposition to, to be put by way of the insurer into the similar place by which the accused would have had the development now not took place however in no higher place. There was once a number one legal responsibility, i.e. to indemnify, and a secondary legal responsibility i.e. to position the insured in his pre-loss place, both by way of paying him a specifying quantity or it may well be in another way. But the truth that the insurer had an choice as to the way in which by which he would put the insured into pre-loss place didn’t imply that he was once now not vulnerable to indemnify him in a method or any other, right away the loss took place. The number one legal responsibility arises at the going down of the development insured in opposition to. So, the time ran from the date of the loss and now not from the date on which the coverage was once have shyed away from and any go well with filed after that cut-off date could be barred by way of limitation.[2]


Only those that have insurable pastime in a assets can take hearth insurance coverage thereon. The following are a number of the magnificence of individuals who’ve been held to own insurable pastime in, assets and will insure such assets:

1. Owners of assets, whether or not sole, or joint proprietor, or spouse within the company proudly owning the valuables. It isn’t vital that they will have to ownership additionally. Thus a lesser and a lessee can each insure it collectively or critically.

2. The vender and buyer have each rights to insure. The dealer’s pastime continues till the conveyance is finished or even thereafter, if he has an unpaid dealer’s lien over it.

3. The mortgagor and mortgagee have each distinct pursuits within the mortgaged assets and will insure, consistent with Lord Esher M.R.”The mortgagee does not claim his interest through the mortgagor , but by virtue of the mortgage which has given him an interest distinct from that of the mortgagor”[3]

4. Trustees are prison homeowners and beneficiaries the really helpful homeowners of agree with assets and every can insure it.

5. Bailees corresponding to carriers, pawnbrokers or warehouse males are answerable for there protection of the valuables entrusted to them and so can insure it.


One who has no insurable pastime in a assets can not insure it. For instance:

1. An unsecured creditor can not insure his debtor’s assets, as a result of his proper is simplest in opposition to the debtor individually. He can, then again, insure the debtor’s existence.

2. A shareholder in an organization can not insure the valuables of the corporate as he has no insurable pastime in any asset of the corporate despite the fact that he’s the only real shareholder. As was once the case of Macaura v. Northen Assurance Co.[4] Macaura. Because neither as a easy creditor nor as a shareholder had he any insurable pastime in it.


As all contracts of insurance coverage are contracts of extreme excellent religion, the proposer for hearth insurance coverage could also be underneath a good responsibility to make a complete disclosure of all subject matter information and to not make any misrepresentations or misdescreptions thereof right through the negotiations for acquiring the coverage. This responsibility of extreme excellent religion applies similarly to the insurer and the insured. There will have to be whole excellent religion at the a part of the confident. This responsibility to watch utmost excellent religion is ensured b requiring the proposer to claim that the statements within the proposal shape are true, that they might be the foundation of the contract and that any fallacious or false remark therein shall keep away from the coverage. The insurer can then depend on them to evaluate the chance and to mend suitable top class and settle for the chance or decline it.

The questions within the proposal shape for a fireplace coverage are so framed as to get all news which is subject matter to the insurer to grasp with a view to assess the chance and attach the top class, this is, all subject matter information. Thus the proposer is needed too give news in relation to:

o The proposer’s title and deal with and career

o The description of the subject material to be insured enough for the aim of figuring out it together with,

o An outline of the locality the place it’s located

o How the valuables is getting used, whether or not for any production goal or hazardous industry.and many others

o Whether it has already been insured

o And additionally ant non-public insurance coverage historical past together with the claims if any made purchase the proposer, and many others.

Apart from questions within the proposal shape, the proposer will have to reveal whether or not wondered or not-

1. Any news which might point out the chance of fireplace to be above customary;

2. Any truth which might point out that the insurer’s legal responsibility is also greater than customary can also be anticipated corresponding to life of precious manuscripts or paperwork, and many others, and

3. Any news bearing upon the extra; danger concerned.

The proposer isn’t obliged to disclose-

1. Information which the insurer is also presumed to grasp within the peculiar process his industry as an insurer;

2. Facts which generally tend to turn that the chance is lesser than another way;

3. Facts as to which news is waived by way of the insurer; and

4. Facts which needn’t disclosed in view of a coverage situation.

Thus, confident is underneath a solemn legal responsibility to make complete disclosure of subject matter information that could be related for the insurer to take into accout whilst deciding whether or not the proposal will have to be accredited or now not. While creating a disclosure of the related information, the


Where extra perils than one act concurrently or successively, it’ll be tough to evaluate the relative impact of every peril or select this sort of as the real reason behind the loss. In such circumstances, the doctrine of proximate reason is helping to resolve the real reason behind the loss.

Proximate reason was once outlined in Pawsey v. Scottish Union and National Ins. Co.,[5]as “the active, effective cause that sets in motion a train of events which brings about a result without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source.” It is dominant and efficient reason despite the fact that it’s not the closest in time. It is due to this fact vital when a loss happens to research and verify what’s the proximate reason behind the loss with a view to resolve whether or not the insurer is chargeable for the loss.


A fireplace coverage covers dangers the place harm is brought about by means of hearth. The hearth is also brought about by way of lightening, by way of explosion or implosion. It is also results of revolt, strike or as a result of any, malicious act. However those components will have to in the long run result in a fireplace and the hearth will have to be the proximate reason of wear and tear. Therefore, a loss brought about by way of robbery of assets by way of militants would now not be coated by way of the hearth coverage. The view that the loss was once coated underneath the malicious act clause and due to this fact .the insurer was once vulnerable to meet the declare is untenable, as a result of until and till hearth is the proximate reason f harm, no declare underneath a fireplace coverage could be maintainable.[6]


The steps concerned for taking a fireplace insurance coverage are discussed underneath:

1. Selection of the Insurance Company:

There are many corporations that provide hearth insurance coverage in opposition to unexpected occasions. The person or the corporate will have to take care within the choice of an insurance coverage corporate. The judgment will have to relaxation on components like goodwill, and long run status available in the market. The insurance coverage corporations can both be approached immediately or via brokers, a few of them who’re appointed by way of the corporate itself.

2. Submission of the Proposal Form:

The person or the industry proprietor will have to put up a finished prescribed proposal shape with the vital main points to the insurance coverage corporate for right kind attention and next approval. The news within the Proposal Form will have to be given in excellent religion and will have to be accompanied by way of paperwork that examine the real value of the valuables or items which can be to be insured. Most of the firms have their very own personalised Proposal Forms in which the precise news needs to be equipped.

3. Survey of the Property/ Consideration:

Once the duly stuffed Proposal Form is submitted to the insurance coverage corporate, it makes an “on the spot” survey of the valuables or the products which can be the subject material of the insurance coverage. This is in most cases finished by way of the investigators, or the surveyors, who’re appointed by way of the corporate they usually wish to report to them after a radical analysis and survey. This is crucial to evaluate the chance concerned and calculate the speed of top class.

4. Acceptance of the Proposal:

Once the detailed and complete document is submitted to the insurance coverage corporate by way of the surveyors and comparable officials, the previous makes a radical perusal of the Proposal Form and the document. If the corporate is glad that their isn’t any lacuna or foul play or fraud concerned, it officially “accepts” the Proposal Form and directs the insured to pay the primary top class to the corporate. It is to be famous that the insurance coverage commences after the cost and the acceptance of the top class by way of the insured and the corporate, respectively. The Insurance Company problems a Cover Note after the acceptance of the primary top class.


On receipt of the awareness of loss, the insurer calls for the insured to furnish main points bearing on the loss in a declare from in relation to the next information-

1. Circumstances and reason behind the hearth;

2. Occupancy and scenario of the premises by which the hearth took place;

3. Insured’s pastime within the insured assets; this is capability by which the insured claims and whether or not any others have an interest within the assets;

4. Other insurances at the assets;

5. Value of every merchandise of the valuables on the time of loss in conjunction with proofs thereof , and price of the salvage ,if any; and

6. Amount claimed

Furnishing such news in relation to the declare could also be a situation precedent to the legal responsibility of the insurer. The above news will allow the insurer to ensure whether-

(1) The coverage is in drive;

(2) The peril inflicting the loss is an insured peril;

(3) The assets broken or misplaced is the insured assets.

Rules for calculation of worth of assets

The worth of the insured assets is-

1) Its worth on the time of loss, and

2) At where of loss, and

3) Its actual or intrinsic worth with none regard for its sentimental vale. Loss of potential benefit or different consequential loss isn’t to be taken under consideration.


How a declare arises?

After a freelance of fireplace insurance coverage has come into life, a declare might stand up by way of the operation of a number of insured perils on an unsecured assets. There might as well as a number of uninsured perils additionally working concurrently or in succession of the valuables. In order that the declare will have to be legitimate the next stipulations will have to be fulfilled:

1. The prevalence will have to happen because of the operation of an insured peril or the place each insured and different perils operated , the dominant or environment friendly reason behind the loss will have to were an insured peril;

2. The operation of the peril will have to now not come inside the scope of the coverage exceptions;

3. The tournament will have to have brought about loss or harm of the insured assets;

4. The prevalence will have to be right through the forex of the coverage;

5. The insured will have to have fulfilled the entire coverage stipulations and will have to additionally agree to necessities to be fulfilled after the declare had arisen.


The felony file of an confident may impact the ethical danger, which insurers needed to assess, and the non-disclosure of a major felony offence like theft by way of the plaintiff would a subject matter non-disclosure.


On the outbreak of a fireplace the insured is underneath an implied responsibility to watch excellent religion against the insurers and the in pursuance of it the insured will have to do his best possible to avert or decrease the loss. For this goal he will have to (1) take all affordable measures to position out the hearth or save you its unfold, and (2) lend a hand the hearth brigade and others of their makes an attempt to take action at any fee now not come of their approach.

With this object the insured assets is also got rid of to a spot of protection. Any loss or harm the insured assets might maintain at some stage in makes an attempt to battle the hearth or right through its elimination to a spot of protection and many others., might be deemed to be loss proximately brought about by way of the hearth.

If the insured fails in his responsibility willfully and thereby will increase the load of the insurer, the insured might be disadvantaged of his proper to restore any indemnity underneath the coverage.[7]


(A) Implied Rights

Corresponding to the insured’s tasks the insurers have rights by way of the legislation, in view of the legal responsibility they have got undertaken to indemnify the insured. Thus the insurers have a proper to-

o Take affordable measures to extinguish the hearth and to reduce the loss to assets, and

o For that goal, to go into upon and take ownership of the valuables.

The insurers might be vulnerable to make excellent the entire harm the valuables might maintain right through the stairs taken to position out the hearth and so long as it of their ownership, as a result of all that is thought of as the herbal and direct result of the hearth; it has due to this fact been held in terms of Ahmedbhoy Habibhoy v. Bombay Fire Marine Ins. Co [8] that the level of the wear flowing from the insured peril will have to be assessed when the insurer offers again and now not as on the time when the peril ceased.

(B) Loss brought about by way of steps taken to avert the chance

Damage sustained because of motion taken to keep away from an insured possibility was once now not a result of that possibility and was once now not recoverable until the insured possibility had begun to perform. In the case of Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co. Ltd v. Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., [9] the Canadian Supreme Court held that “the loss was caused by the fire fighters’ mistaken belief that their action was necessary to avert an explosion , and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire explosion., and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire or explosion.”

(C) Express rights

Condition 5- so as to offer protection to their rights neatly insurers have prescribed for higher rights expressly on this situation in keeping with which at the going down of any destruction or harm the insurer and each individual approved by way of the insurer might input, take or stay ownership of the development or premises the place the wear has took place or require it to be brought to them and maintain it for all affordable functions like analyzing, arranging, eliminating or promote or dispose off the similar for the account of whom it is going to worry.

When and the way a declare is made?

In the development of a fireplace loss coated underneath the hearth insurance coverage, the Insured shall right away give understand thereof to the insurance coverage corporate. Within 15 days of the prevalence of such loss, the Insured will have to put up a declare in writing, giving the main points of damages and their estimated values. Details of alternative insurances at the identical assets will have to even be declared.

The Insured will have to procure and bring, at his personal expense, any record like plans, account books, investigation studies and many others. on call for by way of the insurance coverage corporate.


Insurance underneath a fireplace coverage might stop in any of the next cases, specifically:

(1) Insurer fending off the coverage by way of reason why of the insured making misrepresentation, misdescription or non-disclosure of any subject matter explicit;

(2) If there’s a fall or displacement of any insured development vary or construction or phase thereof , then at the expiry of 7 days wherefrom, excluding the place the autumn or displacement was once because of the motion of any insured peril; however this, the insurance coverage is also revived on revised phrases if categorical understand is given to the corporate as quickly because the prevalence takes position;

(3) The insurance coverage is also terminated at any tie on the request of the insured and on the choice of the corporate on 15 days understand to the insured


Tangible assets is uncovered to a lot of dangers like hearth, floods, explosions, earthquake, revolt and conflict, and many others. and insurance coverage coverage can also be had in opposition to a majority of these dangers severally or together. The shape by which the quilt is expressed is a lot of and sundry. Fire insurance coverage in its strict sense is all for giving coverage in opposition to hearth and hearth simplest. So whilst granting a fireplace insurance coverage the entire requisites want be fulfilled. The insured are underneath an ethical and prison legal responsibility to be at utmost excellent religion and will have to be telling true information and now not simply faux grounds simplest with the greed to get better cash. Further all insurance coverage insurance policies lend a hand within the construction of a Developing country. Hence insurance coverage corporations have a burden to lend a hand the insured when the insured are in bother.


1. (1983) VR 698 (Supreme Court of Vienna)

2. Callaghan v. Dominion Insurance Co. Ltd. (1997) 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 541 (QBD)

3. Small v. U.Ok Marine Insurance Association (1897) 2 QB 311

4. (1925) AC 619

5. (1907) Case.

6. National Insurance Company v. Ashok Kumar Barariio

7. Devlin v. Queen Insurance Co, (1882) 46 UCR 611.

8. (1912) 40 IA 10 PC

9. (1981) 123 DLR (3d) 513 (Supreme Court of Canada)

Books Referred:

1. The Economics of Fire Protection by way of Ganapathy Ramachandran

2. Modern Insurance Law, by way of John Birds

3. The Handbook of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act and Regulations with Allied Laws ,by way of Nagar

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